Go Style Guide

Unless specified otherwise below, stick to golang’s CodeReviewComments.

Generally the code should be formatted with gofmt (checked by CI).

Lines must be at most 100 characters long (checked by CI via lll).

Naming

We use mixedCaps notation as recommended by Effective Go. The following rules apply (note that a significant part of the code base uses other notations; these should be refactored, however):

  • Use sd or SD to refer to the SCION Daemon, not Sciond or SCIOND.
  • Use IfID or ifID for SCION Interface Identifiers, not IFID or InterfaceID.
  • Use Svc or svc for SCION Service Addresses, not SVC or Service.
  • Use TRC or trc for Trust Root Configurations, not Trc.

Imports (checked by CI)

Imports are grouped (separated by empty line) in the following order:

  • standard lib
  • third-party packages
  • our packages

Within each group the imports are alphabetically sorted.

Function declaration over multiple lines

If a function declaration uses more than 1 line the first line should be empty:

func usingMultipleLines(
    args string) error {

    // start the code here
}

Abbreviations

For variable names common abbreviations should be preferred to full names, if they are clear from the context, or used across the codebase.

Examples:

  • Seg instead of Segment
  • Msgr instead of Messenger
  • Sync instead of Synchronization

Specialities

goroutines should always call defer log.HandlePanic() as the first statement (checked by CI).

Logging

  • To use logging, import "github.com/scionproto/scion/go/lib/log".
  • The logging package supports three logging levels:
    • Debug: entries that are aimed only at developers, and include very low-level details. These should never be enabled on a production machine. Examples of such entries may include opening a socket, receiving a network message, or loading a file from the disk.
    • Info: entries that either contain high-level information about what the application is doing, or “errors” that are part of normal operation and have been handled by the code. Examples of such entries may include: issuing a new certificate for a client, having the authentication of an RPC call fail, or timing out when trying to connect to a server.
    • Error: entries about severe problems encountered by the application. The application might even need to terminate due to such an error. Example of such entries may include: the database is unreachable, the database schema is corrupted, or writing a file has failed due to insufficient disk space.
  • Do not use log.Root().New(...), instead use New directly: log.New(...).
  • Keys should be snake case; use log.Debug("msg", "some_key", "foo") instead of log.Debug("msg", "someKey", "foo") or other variants.
  • Try to not repeat key-value pairs in logging calls that are close-by; derive a new logging context instead (e.g., if multiple logging calls refer to a "request" for "Foo", create a sublogger with this context by calling newLogger = parentLogger.New("request", "Foo") and then use newLogger.Debug("x")).
  • An empty log.New() has no impact and should be omitted.

Here is an example of how logging could be added to a type:

type Server struct {
	// Logger is used by the server to log information about internal events. If nil, logging
	// is disabled.
	Logger Logger
}

// Use a func because this is a godoc example, but this would normally be something like
// s.Run().
Run := func(s *Server) {
	if s.Logger == nil {
		s.Logger = DiscardLogger{}
	}
	s.Logger.Debug("this message is discarded now")
}

Run(&Server{})

Metrics

Metrics definition and interactions should be consistent throughout the code base. A common pattern makes it easier for developers to implement and refactor metrics, and for operators to understand where metrics are coming from. As a bonus, we should leverage the type system to help us spot as many errors as possible.

To write code that both includes metrics, and is testable, we use the metric recommendations from the go-kit project.

A simple example with labels (note that Foo’s metrics can be unit tested by mocking the counter):

type Giant struct {
	MagicBeansEaten metrics.Counter
}

type BeanLabels struct {
	Color string // can be "blue" or "orange"
}

// Use a func for this to be displayed properly in the godoc, but this should be a method.
Expand := func(labels BeanLabels) []string {
	// converts labels to a slice of strings
	return []string{"color", labels.Color}
}

giant := Giant{}
labels := BeanLabels{Color: "orange"}
counter := giant.MagicBeansEaten.With(Expand(labels)...)
counter.Add(4)

Calling code can later create Giant objects with Prometheus metric reporting by plugging a prometheus counter as the Counter. The Prometheus objects can be obtained from the metrics packages in the following way:

type Giant struct {
	MagicBeansEaten metrics.Counter
}

counter := metrics.NewPromCounterFrom(stdprometheus.CounterOpts{
	Name: "magic_beans_eaten_total",
	Help: "Number of magic beans eaten.",
}, nil)

giant := Giant{
	MagicBeansEaten: counter,
}
giant.MagicBeansEaten.Add(4)

In cases where performance is a concern, consider applying the labels outside of the performance-critical section.

Note

Some packages have metrics packages that define labels and initialize metrics (see the go/cs/beacon/metrics package for an example). While this is also ok, the recommended way is to define labels in the package itself and initialize metrics in main.

Best Practices

  1. prometheus.io/docs/practices/naming/
  2. Namespace should be one word.
  3. Subsystem should be one word (if present).
  4. Use values that can be searched with regex. E.g. prepend err_ for every error result.
  5. snake_case label names and values.
  6. Put shared label names and values into go/lib/prom.
  7. Always initialize CounterVec to avoid hidden metrics link <https://prometheus.io/docs/practices/instrumentation/#avoid-missing-metrics)>.